Above is the authors' rendering of an accreting neutron star ( linked content to .pdf file). This image can be seen at Cloudy Nights Telescope Reviews website.   © 2009 Ken Pinkela

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Out of this Universe

AUIT's Monthly Astronomical Publication

Welcome to the third edition of Out of this Universe, a monthly publication covering one of the many aspects of astronomy, including historical discoveries and personalities, current scientific research, telescopes and imaging, art and drwaing. The majority of data in these issues are from the scientists, institutions, professonial and amatuer astronomers, historians and artists who have photographed, studied, drawn or written about the topic under discussion, as well as interesting facts or fiction surrounding the astronomical wonders from around our stellar neighborhood and beyond the edges of our own galaxy. Our third installment is the first of a three part publication. The first looks to the world of space art in short biographies, from Verne to Schneeman, continuing on to the modern founder of the genre, Chesley Bonestell and includes many fine works from the artists and world of space art. Part two continues after The Conquest of Space and looks at the art during the period 1952 to 1981. Part three concludes the series with a review of the art and artists of the pulp media era (c.1930-1950), finishing with a look at the modern day form and style of space art. I hope you enjoy the following and thank you for stopping in.

§ Introduction to Part One

"Long before the first Sputnik circled the earth in 1957, a certain breed of artists, inspired by astronomical discoveries, adopted the whole cosmos as their muse. Like artists re-creating the world of the dinosaurs, these painters revelled in the challenge of combining their latest scientific findings with their own creativity."Space Art by Ron Miller, p.10 The Archeology of Space Art, 1978

Quo Ars Omne Ignotum Profecto Pro Magnifico
Chaos in the Universe It has been one hundred and forty-four years since the publishing of Verne's From the Earth to the Moon — a period long enough for Space Art to have developed and carved its own niche within the larger field of art in general. Its historical longevity is such that one can readily find written many excellent essays and studies regarding its inception, historical roots and developement, present day form and style, as well as biographies written about the lives and images of those to whom we memorialize as having been its creators.

When researching for this publication, I found myself often taken back to that period of time between the 1950s and 1960s, an era often described using such terms as bomb shelters, atomic weapon tests, the baby boom, cars, fashion, TV, rock and roll, the missile crisis, rockets and the space race. Histoically speaking, it was during this period that space art and science merged and began to influence the mainstream of society, reflecting the challenges and tensions within the world of the 1950s and 1960s. Though many influences were at work upon the opinions, thinking and eventually, support of the public towards space travel, a common theme behind its development is the often heard statement, "I was hooked on space, astronomy and moon travel the moment I picked up a copy of that magazine and saw the picture of..."

the antNGC 3132NGC 2174Omega Nebula As to my own efforts in this area, they are not borne of any particular influence or style, but result largely from the study of astronomy, a lifelong artistic ability ad libitum and a desire to enhance upon the the science renderings one often views at many institutions of science, like NASA, the ESO and others. Some are rendered with the physics of the science in mind and others, simply because they "appear" within the realm of possibility. One need only study and compare examples of such stellar objects as the massive M17 complex, NGC 2174, the Eight Burst Nebula or the Ant Nebula (Mz3), shown above, to understand that nature's own diversity is unbounded, rendering the cosmos in such immeasurable diversity of form that it seems impossible that we will ever be able to create the definitive image of the universe. Above left is an image entitled Stellar Winds Clear a Solar Vista, created by the author in 2008. Images above right are courtesy the Hubble Space Telescope, NASA, Hubble Heritage Team, ESA, ESO, JPL, AURA, STScI.

From art, everything unknown truly appears magnificent.
— quo ars omne ignotum profecto pro magnifico
Food For Thought
Intro Cover, Charles SchneemanSpace or Astro Art is a relatively new branch within the genre and it gradually developed into several rather distinct styles with different agendas: one created for the world of science fiction and another for the scientific community that required an accurate rendering of objects within our solar system and beyond. When these artistic paths eventually coalesced, it created more than just a new art form, it inspired and gave birth to a generation of writers, artists, engineers, astronomers, scientists and everyday citizen whom came to believe in the very real possibilities of space travel.

It began in earnest in 1865, with Verne's From the Earth to the Moon, and was created by those who prided themselves in its accurate portrayal of known facts, rendered by both professional and amateurs alike. It then travelled that path common to art and its inherent creativity by developing its own unique and slightly colored style seen often in the pulp media of the period, roughly between 1930-1960 (some might recognize its definitive form in the terms "Space Race" and "Star Trek Generation"). It thereafter saw a widespread resurgence and return to the ideals that it required science based accuracy, remaining in this creative form through the successful completion of the Apollo moon landing and Skylab missions.

Its current style was introduced — beginning around the mid 1970s when the space shuttle program was in full swing — in part, through such entities as the Rockwell International Space Systems Group, NASA and more recently, through the efforts and interests of the numerous amateur astronomers with an eye and flair for illustration. Seen across the world of the internet and displayed in most of our popular media, the images are breathtaking; the space shuttle (below), the Swift satellite, Voyager, Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes, Mars rovers, Brown Dwarfs, Binary Systems, Black Holes, Proto-Planetary stars, to name a few. It no longers takes license with pure flights of fantasy, but seeks to render the vast universe in a form both visually appealing and scientifically accurate. And the greatest aspect of the art? We now have proof-in-hand that the images of space that we have rendered on canvas, paper or screen, are as wonderful and true as the real life backdrop of all the things discovered within our universe; a universe that is very astouding indeed! — K.Pinkela

Rockwell's Space Shuttle Seen above is the April 1939 issue of Astounding Science Fiction magazine. The cover's artwork was by Charles Schneeman, an artist who's fine work appeared in the decade prior to Bonestell's. He strove for accuracy and realistic detail in his astronomical paintings, preparing this particular cover after having "spent many hours of research in libraries and conferences". The cover's novellete 'Worlds Don't Care' was written by Nat Schachner. Source: Dreams of Tomorrow — Science Fiction Art from Yesterday by William Max Miller.

Seen at right is a 1978 artist's rendition of the Space Shuttle in earth orbit, releasing a satellite from the storage bay area. The image was part of a public relations package (PUB 3541-A-1 REV 4-79) from the original Rockwell International Space Systems Group, entitled A Promising New Era for Earth. It is part of the author's collection from the original portfolio pacakge of information, acquired several years prior to STS-1, the first shuttle mission and systems test flight by John W. Young and Robert L. Crippen.   NASA

From the Caves on Earth to a Lunar Journey

Early Astronomical Drawing & Art

"Where the world ceases to be the scene of our personal hopes and wishes, where we face it as free beings admiring,
asking and observing, there we enter the realm of Art and Science"
  — Albert Einstein, 1879-1955

Anasazi Chaco SupernovaIt was July 4th, 1054 and standing in an open area of the Chaco Canyon in New Mexico, a member of the Anasazi civilization looked towards the heavens and, catching his breath, saw something that hadn't been there before, a new and very bright star on the curtain of the night sky. He probably wondered what great spirit caused the new light to appear and shine so brightly. Returning to an area above the floor of the canyon, he did what came natural to him, he painted the stellar scene on a high rock wall; a bright star, a cresent moon and an open hand in colors such as yellow and red, now faded maroon (image left). Nor was he alone, for the ancient sunwatchers, the Sinagua astronomers, as well as Chinese and Japanese astronomers, also recorded the same supernova of 1054 (now known as the Crab Nebula) which was so bright it was visible even in daylight. The overhang and its images were the subject of a 1999 publishing (Charbonneau et al., 1999 see Ward, 2002) in which the researchers found that this Supernova Glyph comes the closest to depicting the event of 1054, a conclusion based on the fact that no other wall paintings were as astronomically convincing as that at Chaco Canyon. Image: Anasazi, Chaco Supernova from Jack M. Barrack Hebrew Academy.   [1]   fn1

Seti I astronomical drawingWhether it was the cave paintings of early man, the zodiac figures imaged by Roman artists, engravings from the ancient Egyptians or earlier Greeks (pre—332 BC), the 1500 petroglyphs (rock drawings) at Tanum, astronomy in Hindu mythology or images drawn by Europeans voyaging Polynesian waters, looking up towards the heavens and drawing what one sees has gone hand-in-hand throughout time. And while drawing for purely scientific purposes began early on, it wasn't till the advent of the telescope that things really began to change — artistically speaking that is. Seen at right is an astronomical drawing from the period of Seti I. "Mythological figures used in the New Kingdom and thought to represent constellations in the Northern sky are usually the Hippopotamus, the Bull/Bull's Thigh, the Lion, various crocodiles, and sometimes two male figures, one with a hawk's head, and a female goddess." from The Lion (Leo) was known in the New Kingdom by Robert G. Bauval.   [2]

Galileo's MoonThe first "scientific based" illustrations of a solar system object began with the arrival of the telescope in the early 1600s, with illustrations of the moon rendered via the medium of pen and paper by Thomas Harriot and Galileo Galilei; not until the advent of Louis Daguerre's camera of 1839 would this change. Kepler and Galileo and later, John Bevis, William Parsons and William Herschel, as well as a multitude of others through the late 1800s, would all draw what they saw through their telescopes and many of our now famous objects were first viewed and named based on the early work of these astronomers and their scientific renderings. At left is a drawing from Galileo, a sketch from his book Sidereus Nuncius (Sidereal Messenger) from 1610, in which he describes the contours of the moon as seen through his newly invented telescope.   [3]

From the Earth to the Moon in 1865

The ProjectileAfter the arrival of the telescope, illustrations still remained limited to the science of pure research or to the various flights of imagination, depicting the stellar realm in a most allegorical manner, relying less on science than on the mysticism of the time. But in 1865, that all changed. Drawing on the best scientific knowledge of the day, including the services of selenographers Beer and Maedlerm, Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon (1865) not only presented his own roughly calculated flight into space but also featured the first true artwork with an eye to scientific reality. As noted by artist and author Ron Miller,

"The first space art appeared in 1865 with the illustrations by Emile Bayard and A. de Neuvill for Jules Verne's novel, From the Earth to the Moon. There had been imaginary views of other worlds, and even of space flight before this. But until Verne's book appeared, these views all had been heavily colored by mysticism rather than science."   [4]

At right is "The Projectile" from Jules Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon, which was illustrated by Henri de Montaut. The novel is a humorous science fantasy, written in 1865, that actually has similarities to the real-life Apollo program of 1961—1975. "The story is also notable in that Verne attempted to do some rough calculations as to the requirements for the cannon and, considering the total lack of any data on the subject at the time, some of his figures are surprisingly close to reality." Wikipedia

Emile Antoine BayardEmile Antoine Bayard2Henri de MontautFig.1 Illustrator Henri de Montaut's (1840—1905) image of the moon-projectile as it shoots away from the earth (From the Earth to the Moon). Montaut was a successful magazine cartoonist who also specialized in portraits—as in his rendering of the three Vernian astronauts Barbicane, Nicholls, and Michel Ardan in Verne's novel (p.284)

Fig.2 & 3 Illustrator Émile-Antoine Bayard's (1837—1891) 'Leaving for the Moon' and after, the 'Splashdown' of the projectile in the ocean from Verne's sequel, Around the Moon. It was written of Bayard's illustrative work, "His engravings showing the effects of weightlessness upon the pioneer astronauts; the survey of the moon's surface; and, above all, the 'spashdown' picture are among science fiction's most famous illustrations (#33). The latter piece, showing the American flag securely fixed above the module, proved to be amazingly prophetic when Frank Borman of the Apollo 9 moon expedition landed in the Pacific, one hundred years later, only two or three miles from the point mentioned in the book."   [5], [6]

These were the images that began a new era of artistic interpetation and illustration of space and the universe, an art based on the science at hand rather than conjecture or vague, groundless speculation. It pictured the substance of the cosmos via a more scientifically realistic format than had been done previously, eventually bringing together the world of astronomical science and stellar art and in turn, lending itself to the visulaization of our universe in a most gifted, prophetic and meaningful manner.

1.   The cave drawing in Chaco Canyon, while still open to interpetation, is not the only evidence found for early inhabitants of this area having recorded the supernova event of 1054. See for example, Supernova Of 1054 AD. The Crab Nebula Archaeoastronomy, Site Of The Earliest Observation Known To Man. This site saw several surveys made with star charts depicting the sky as it would have been viewed in 1054. The results have thus far been remarkable. For more information and a virtual tour the Chaco Canyon site see the NASA sponsored website Traditions of the Sun : Ancient Astronomy

Images of Science and Art

Étienne Léopold Trouvelot (1827 — 1895)

"During the following 30 years that he remained in America his amateur passion for science would ensure a legacy that straddles both fame and infamy."   — BibliOdyssey, Monday, July 31, 2006

The planet Saturn. Observed on... Digital ID: TROUVELOT_010. New York Public LibraryThough known as the individual responsible for the introduction of the gypsy moth into the United States, Étienne Léopold Trouvelot was an extremely accomplished stellar artist with approximately 7,000 quality astronomical illustrations to his credit. He arrived in Massachusetts in 1855 and at that time, was primarily a portrait artist when, in 1870, having witnessed several auroras, decided to turn his artistic skills towards the world of astronomy. His prolific style eventually caught the eye of Joseph Winlock, director of the Harvard College Observatory, who, seeing the quality of his illustrations, invited Trouvelot to join the observatory staff in 1872. The result of his efforts there have been preserved and can be viewed at the Harvard University Library in their Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of Harvard College, Volume VIII wherein exist his plate illustrations of observations, a remarkable and lasting tribute to his talents.

Total eclipse of the sun. Obse... Digital ID: TROUVELOT_003. New York Public LibraryThree years later, in 1875, he was invited to use the U. S. Naval Observatory's 26-inch refractor for a year in order to observer and illustrate. Yet, Trouvelot's work was never intended as an avenue for scientific possibilities in artistic form but created as a resource for the science related purpose of a detailed and accurate presentation on solar system and stellar objects. As noted by historian Jan K. Herman and Brenda G. Corbin, a U.S. Naval Observatory librarian, "The illustrations were not intended for the art connoisseur, though they were rich in color and fastidious in detail." Of his his own efforts, Trouvelot wrote:

"While my aim in this work has been to combine srupulous fidelity and accuracy in the details, I have also endeavored to preserve the natural elegance and the delicate outlines peculiar to the object depicted..." A goal that he not only achieved but succeeded in accomplishing most admirably.   [7]

Above is the pastel drawing of the planet Saturn that Trouvelot created in September 1875, based on his observations of November 30, 1874, made at the U. S. Naval Observatory, using the 26-inch Clarke refracting telescope. Galileo had also observed Saturn, in 1610, using his homemade instrument and noted that the Rings had appeared to him as "handles" or large moons, "I have observed the highest planet [Saturn] to be tripled-bodied. This is to say that to my very great amazement Saturn was seen to me to be not a single star, but three together, which almost touch each other". It was only in 1659 that Christiaan Huygens, the Dutch scientist and astronomer resolved the mystery. Using a better telescope he was able see that a complete ring surrounded the planet Saturn. Above right is Trouvelot's image of a total eclipse of the sun he observed on July 29, 1878, at Creston in the Wyoming Territory while camped with members of the Naval Observatory, there for the same purpose, whom he and his son happen to run into. Both images are from the collection of The New York Public Library, the Trouvelot astronomical drawings: Atlas. Clicking on either of the above images will take the reader to the library's web page containing a fine collection of illustrations from Étienne Trouvelot.  [8]

Howard Russell Butler (1856-1934)

"Many times, while making the painting [moonscape], I longed to be at the spot and see how it really looked. But when informed [by an astronomer] that the temperature there would be about 70º below zero, I was content to abandon that desire."
Howard Russell Butler

Howard Russell ButlerHoward Butler became the first president and founder of the American Fine Arts Society and was elected to the National Academy of Design in 1902. He studied at both Princeton and Columbia Universities, graduating from the law school at Columbia, thereafter practising as a patent lawyer in New York City, a career that he eventually gave up in order to pursue his real passion — painting. In this endevour he was especially successful, becoming well known for his paintings of landscapes and solar eclipses. In 1911, he moved to Princeton where he remained as a resident and had his studio. As part of his career, he became supervisor of astronomy exhibits at the American Museum of Natural History. Seen at right is Butler's The Moon and Venus Sunset, an oil painting on board. In 1884, he and Frederick E Church opened a studio in Mexico. He then studied at the Art Students League, and was also in Paris where he became active in the American artist colony. Focusing primarily on color and light, he painted in the French countryside in loose, impressionistic style, and one of his painting companions was John Singer Sargent. By 1886, he was receiving honorable mention at the Paris Salon.   [9]

Howard Russell ButlerThen, at the age of sixty-two, Butler was invited to join a U.S. Naval Observatory expedition to Oregon to chronicle the solar eclipse of June 8, 1918. "As a portrait painter," he wrote in Natural History ("Painting Eclipses and Lunar Landscapes," July-August 1926), "I generally asked for ten sittings of two hours each. But all the time they would allow me on this occasion was 112 1/10 seconds." His finished painting eventually found itself gracing the Hayden Planetarium's rotunda. At left is Butler's painting of the Oregon, June 8, 1918 eclipse which was part of a triptych or three paneled framed display for the "Proposed Hall of Astronomy at the American Museum of Natural History." Notes Joe Rao in his article for Natural History, Shades of Glory, "Butler painted the eclipses based on sketches and notes of the colors he made in the brief time allowed." Today Butler's paintings are held in a number of public collections, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Parrish Art Museum in Southampton and the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, DC.   [10]

Lucien Rudaux (1874 — 1947)

"Lucien Rudaux's 19th-century vision of the Moon remains accurate because it sticks to geology rather than wishful thinking."
Visions of Space: Artists Journey Through the Cosmos

Lucien RudauxIn 2000, the International Association of Astronomical Artists (IAAA) created a Hall of Fame for the recognition of individuals who are considered "celebrated masters of the genré of Space Art". Their first inductee and namesake was posthumously awarded the pretigious honor known as the Lucien Rudaux Memorial Award. Alongside Rudaux, other great masters were also acknowledged for their lifetime contributions to Astronomical Art — Chesley Bonestell, Ludek Pesek and legends Jack Coggins, Frederick C. Durant III and Robert McCall. In their biography of Rudaux, the IAAA says:

"Lucien Rudaux was, first and foremost, an astronomer and became director of the observatory at Donville, Normandy. He also wrote and illustrated his own books, such as the sought-after classic Sur les autres mondes. Through his telescope, he observed the "limb" of the Moon, where its battered surface is seen in profile against the black sky. While other artists showed lunar mountains as being steep, jagged peaks, Rudaux painted them as rounded and eroded—not by the elements but by eons of impacts by meteorites, extremes of temperature and electrostatic levitation of the dust. His paintings often resemble Apollo photographs, yet they were produced far before anyone ever went to the Moon. A crater on Mars has been named after him." Image above, Night Sky of Mars with Its Two Small Moons by Lucien Rudaux.   [11]

Lucien Rudaux, Moon CraterAs both artist and astronomer who authored many famous paintings of space themes in the 1920s and 1930s, Rudaux is most famous and recognized for the collection of scientific drawings found in the definitive Larousse Encyclopedia of Astronomy, which remains an often listed and recommended reference encyclopedia that can still be purchased and is available in second and rarer first edition printings. It was Rudaux who showed that viewing the geography of the lunar surface was a simple matter of taking one's own telescope and pointing it so the edge of the moon is highlighted against the backdrop of black space in order to discern the composition of the lunar mountains and craters — this was something that even Bonestell either missed or ignored when illustrating the lunar lanscape. With this idea in mind, Rudaux drew the lunar geography so accurately that it still remains, seventy years later, an excellent source for the amatuer astronomer. At right, an image of a lunar crater from Sur les Autres Mondes (On the other Worlds), Lucien Rudaux, 1937.   fn2

Charles Schneeman (1912 — 1972)

"Done with the help and advice of the Hayden Planetarium astronomers...it represents as great a degree of accuracy as is possible to our present knowledge...The stars shown are about the number that would actually be seen...The coloration of Saturn is as near to absolute accuracy as a dozen authorities on the subject make possible."   — Dreams of Tomorrow: Science Fiction Art from Yesterday by William Max Miller, M.A. quoting editor of Astounding Science Fiction John Wood Campbell Jr.

Intro Cover, Charles SchneemanCharles Schneeman was born in Staten Island, New York on November 24, 1912. In 1922 his family moved to Brooklyn, where he attended Erasmus Hall High School from 1924 to 1928. He received a diploma from New York City's Pratt Institute in 1933. Further art training followed at Grand Central School of Art with Harvey Dunn and George Bridgeman's figure drawing classes. At left is Schneeman's famous painting of Saturn for the cover of Astounding Science Fiction as it would appear if viewed from its third-largest moon Iapetus (Japetus). John Campbell, editor of Astounding, explained that Japetus was chosen because it is the only moon of Saturn from which the rings would be visible as they appear in the painting.

Second Cover, Charles Schneeman"The catalyst for Schneeman's interest in science fiction and drawing was explained in a letter written to Alva Rogers: 'a friend showed me an early copy of Amazing Stories sometime in 1927 and it was my undoing. The world lost a chemist as I went down the science fiction drain. Early artistic influences included Winsor McKay, Franklyn Booth, McClelland Barclay and H.G. Wesso.' " Charles Schneeman began illustrating for Astounding Stories in 1935. His first cover illustration for Astounding Science Fiction appeared in May 1938 and he continued illustrations for the magazine through 1952. Schneeman passed away on January 1, 1972 and a great portion of his records and work is currently cataloged at the University of California, Davis, Department of Special Collections, General Library. At left is another cover from Astounding Science Fiction, illustrated by Charles Schneeman in 1952, courtesy Hakmiller Genealogy & Science Fiction   [12]
Though the influence may have been somewhat subtle and immeasurable, there is no denying the growing impact that the art had on the serious pioneers of space travel nor the images that they conjured up in the mind of the everyday individual. It might be said that these were simply a continuation of the legacy of Verne's Earth to the Moon, made real through the factual and scientifically based drawings of those like Émile-Antoine Bayard, Étienne Trouvelot or Lucien Rudaux, whose influence cultivated this trend amongst a growing number of space artists who were the "painters who depicted astronomical and space travel scenes with accuracy as well as power." Its allure was the driving force that inspired the talents of others, like Bonestell, Pesek, Coggins, Durant and McCall to continue the artistic style of creating scientifically accurate images. These artists were the great creators of the genre and collectively, would also become the driving force over the next thirty years, that golden period from 1940 to 1970 that would form the thinking and energy behind the race for space, incorporating a scientific reality which helped to ignite the imagination and desires within a generation that willingly took up the challenges and costs required to reach outer space.  [13]

2.   Melvin Schuetz, in Chesley Bonestell Space Art Chronology, asks when speaking of Bonestell's painting of the lunar lanscape, why he choose to follow the older and incorrect school of thought, rendering the moon's surface as steep and mountainous rather than the open plains, smooth rimmed craters and rounded hills it actually was. Rudaux, Gilbert as well as a few others had already, or were soon to, reach this conclusion (see for example, the renderings of Gilbert, G.K. (1893) The Moon's Face, in .pdf file format and E. A. Whitaker (1954) The Lunar South Polar Regions from the Journal of the B.A.A.). Mr. Schuetz notes that Bonestell's illustrations were taken as a factual representation of the lunar geography, to the extent that "few if any people—scientists and astronomers included—ever questioned their accuracy, no more than one would question the reality of a photograph." Ibid, pg.xxv. The issue arose both from the fact that Bonestell took a great deal of pride in the accuracy of his scientific illustrations and as to whether, if rendered as the dull, mundane and unexciting landscape it actually is, the public would have been as anxious to go there as it was. Interestingly and ironically, it is also pointed out that Rudaux was probably the victim of his own scientifically accurate renderings, which prevented him from achieving the same level of fame as Bonestell.   [14]

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  1. Potterfield, PeterFrom Chaco Canyon to Sky City article of March 18th, 2009 "A hiking expedition through some of the most magical landscapes of New Mexico" from the GreatOutdoors.com website
  2. Bauval, Robert G.The Lion (Leo) was known in the New Kingdom, Ancient Astronomical Drawings: The Common Prototype © 2002
  3. Sidereus Nuncius Magna (Venice 1610) from the Linda Hall Library, History of Science Collection. Electronic edition published by Cultural Heritage Langauge Technologies, July 19, 2009
  4. Miller, Ron The Archeology of Space Art from Space Art: Starlog Photo Guidebook, 1978
  5. Dalby, Richard Bayard, Emile-Antoine. In Robert Weinburg, A Biographical Dictionary of Science Fiction and Fantasy Artists (NY & Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1988) 47.
  6. Verne, Jules From The Earth To The Moon, english translation by Lewis Mercier and Eleanor E. King (1873) Original illustrations by Henri de Montaut (1868) Edited to HTML by Zvi Har'El, from Project Gutenberg ™ Etext, no.83 (October 1993)
  7. Herman, Jan K. and Corbin, Brenda G. Trouvelot's Chromolithographs, article from the New York Library, presented by the Science, Industry and Business Library, 2001, 2009.
  8. Étienne Léopold Trouvelot, biography from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, July 21, 2009
  9. Stevens, Elisabeth Howard Russell Butler An American in Paris: 1885-1887 Archives of American Art Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4 (1977), pp. 2-5, Published by: The Smithsonian Institution
  10. Edan Milton Hughes Gallery biography of California Artist Howard Russell Butler, July 23, 2009. Also see Shades of Glory My whirlwind tour to the North Pole and back for 175 seconds of totality by Joe Rao, Natural History Magazine, October 2008, © 2008—2009 Natural History Magazine, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. The Lucien Rudaux Memorial Gallery from the International Association of Astronomical Artists (IAAA), Copyright © 1998 - 2007. Biography reprinted with permission of the IAAA.
  12. INVENTORY OF THE CHARLES SCHNEEMAN PAPERS Biography of Charles Schneeman from UC Davis, Dept. of Special Collections. Resource listed in the Online Archive of California, an initiative of the California Digital Library. Copyright © 2009 The Regents of The University of California
  13. Michaud, Michael A. G. Reaching for the High Frontier, The American Pro-Space Movement 1972-84 Copyright © 1986 by Praeger Publishers
  14. Schuetz, Melvin H. A Chesley Bonestell Space Art Chronology, Universal Publishers Parkland, Florida. Copyright © 1999 Melvin H. Schuetz

Further Reading, Histroical & General